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Dr. S. S. Sindhu

Project Coordinator (Flori.) & Formely Director of Horticulture
Principal Scientist, Division of Floriculture and Landscaping, IARI, New Delhi 110012
Email: sssindhu2003@yahoo.co.in

There are a few varieties that are classified differently in various countries by various Rose Societies.  To prevent confusion, the Rose Society of India has decided to adopt the following grouping in respect of these varieties.

  Evening Star HT        
Africa Star Florbunda      
Fresh Pink Polyantha      
Pettle Folie Miniature

1.Classification of Roses: The detail classification of roses based on colour is given below

(1) Classification of HT Roses in colour groups
Section 1 : White Group

Dr. Homi Bhabha Evening Star Garden Party John F.Kennedy  
Louisiana Virgo White Masterpiece    

Section 2: Yellow Group
Lemon Spice Golden Splendor Golden Giant Pusa Sonia  

Gold Medal


Section 3: Orange Scarlet Group
Command Preformance Montezuma Future Summer Holiday  

Super Star


Section 4: Red Group
Avon Christion Dior Happiness Mr. Lincoln  
Oklahoma Papa Meiland Red Chief Red Lion  
Red Devil Red Planet      

Section 5: Deep Pink Group
Century Two Dr. B.P.Pal First Prize Mrinalini  

Section 6: Light Pink Group
Apsara Jadis Dil-ki-Rani Eiffel Tower  
Pastel Delight Royal Highness      

Section 7 : Lavander Mauve Group
Blue Moon Blue Nile Blue Ocean Kasturi Rangan  
Lady X Silver Star Sterling Silver Nilambri  

Section 8 : Apricot Group

Ambassadir Brandy Doris Tysterma Valencia  

Section 9 : Bio-colour Group
Bijazzo Disco Love Nandini  
Piccadilly Sentiments      

Section 10 : Colour Blend etc. Group
Ajantha Caves American Heritage Cereless Love Double Delight  
Eiko Kiss of Fire Paradise    

(2)An illustrative list of typical HT-type Floribundas
Delhi Princess Prema Queen Elizabeth Sea Pearl  
Surya Kiran Surya Kiran Neelambari Pink Parfait  

(3) Floribunda type : Mahak, Golden, Prema, Summer Snow, Rays, Sobhag, Deccan Delight, Rajamani, Sunil Gavaskar, Sindoor, Arunima, Deepika, Chandrama, Nav Sadabahar, Suchitra, Kusum, Chitchor

(4) Polyantha : Rashmi, Pink Spray, Barani, Nartaki, Vaterty

(5) Climbing and rambling type

Cocktail Golden Showers Prosperity    
Campassion Delhi White Pearl Clg. Miss Horp    
Clg. Avar Climbing Mister Lincoln Kanyakumari    



(6) Miniature : Dazling Flam, Dazler, Beauty Scarlet, Lavander Jewel

Common Root Stock

1.      Rosa mutiflora (Suitable for Central Part)

2.      Rosa indica var. odorata ( Common in North)

3.      Rosa borbiana (Edward Rose) used in south India

Propagation Methods

Rootstock are raised and then 'T'- budding is common in rose.  Under North Indian conditions budding are done during Jan.-Feb. whereas under Bangalore and Pune conditions it can be done any time.

R & D on Roses

The major work on roses are being carried out at IARI, Pusa, New Delhi. However, a good work on research & development has been carried out at IIHR, Bangalore, Pune, NBRI, Lucknow.  Even some nursery man M/S K.G.& Sons, Bangalore and many others are also multiplying true to type rose varieties.

2. Disbudding, De-shooting and specific Pruning

i) Disbudding is also an important operation by removing buds and retaining only central resulting in large flowers with better quality.

ii) De-shooting is removal of lateral shoots to allow only terminal shoots. It is necessary otherwise plants get heavily branched with large number of small flowers.

iii) Pruning is an important operation for maintenance of floriferous ness and flower quality along with vigour of rose plants. The main objectives of pruning are to remove weak and unproductive shoots which allows air and light to reach plant centre. It keeps the plant in proper shape and size and also forces the plant buds to break and grow to produce quality flowers. It also helps in maintenance of proper balance between vegetative growth and flowering.

Pruning should be done when plants are less active or dormant. In northern plains of India it is mainly done during October-November. The basic rule of pruning is to cut half centimetre above the vigorous, outward directed bud by giving a slanting cut because it does not retain moisture and prevents fungal growth.

In H.T. roses all dead, weak, damaged, diseased and crossing shoots are removed from the base retaining only 4-5 healthy basal shoots. Moderately severe pruning appears to be ideal.

In floribunda main objective of pruning is to produce abundant flowers. It is done by removing older growth at every point and young growth is shortened by about 1/3 or 1/2. Whereas in polyantha/miniature removal of only dead, diseased or over crowded branches serve the purpose.

3. Manuring and Fertilization

          Rose is a nutrient loving plant and about 16 elements have been known to play important role for its growth and development. Rose should be fed with both organic and inorganic sources. One hundred gram of mixture containing Groundnut cake-(5 kg), bonemeal (5 kg), ammorphos (11:48)-(2 kg), Ammonium sulphate are used after pruning.

          Single super phosphate-(2 kg) and potassium sulphate-(1 kg) should be applied per bush for better result. After pruning N (520 kg), P2O5 (868 kg) and K2O (694 kg)/ ha has been reported in super star from IARI. It is advisable to apply the fertilizers in three split doses and application should be made when there is sufficient moisture in the soil. The first application of the fertilizers should be given 15 days after pruning when the new growth will start, i.e. in October then December and third dose in February.

4. Insects and Diseases Insects:

a) Insects:  The most common insects are Aphids, Jassids, Sacles and Thrips and red Caterpillars. The symptoms of scale are seen in the picture.

b) Diseases

i) Die-back

          It is one of the major diseases of rose, particularly in India. The older plants are more prone to the attack of this disease as compared to younger ones. The stem and roots of the dead plants show browning of internal tissues. Diplodia rosarum is the causal organism. It may occur through improper use of fertilizers, improper waterning, borer damage, poor drainage, lack of light. Proper cultural practice is the prevention for die back in roses. Some systemic fungicide like carbendazim (1g/l) may also be used as soil drench.

ii) Powdery-mildew

          This major disease of rose cause much damage to roses all over the world. It is caused by the fungus Sphaerotheca pannosa. It can be controlled by applying sulphur but most of the roses are susceptible to sulphur injury.

iii) Black-Spot

          This is a fungal disease caused by Diplocarpon rosae. Dark brown, circular spots with fringe borders present on both sides of leaflets. Benlate can be used as control measure.

iv) Stem blight

          This disease caused by fungi associated with die back. Regular spray of captan (2000 ppm) and such other fungicides control the infection.

v) Rust

          Rose rust is considered as a serious disease of rose and most common in warn and humid areas.

Copyright by The Rose Society of India,  New Delhi, India